how is a bone density test done

Bone Density measurement (bone scan)

Bone Mineral density measurement test (kmy, BMD)

What is bone density measurement (bone scan lyrics)?

how is a bone density test done ? Bone mineral density (kmy) = BMD (bone mineral density)

It creates minerals such as calcium and phosphorus in the important part of the bone structure. The purpose of the bone density (Dansitesi) measurement methods is to determine the quantity ratio of this mineral portion of the bone. The loss of mineral minerals in the bone is done in the form of the intensity that it is measured in low, i.e. bone melting (osteoporosis) occurred in this case decreased density of the bone mineral. The measurement of bone mineral density should be done in women, in men, in some cases in children, in this article, in the case of menopausal bone density measurements in women, especially in the menopause.

Bone mineral density measurement is often referred to as bone screening, bone screening analysis, bone screening lyrics, bone melting lyrics, bone screening film, Bone melting film. It is briefly written in the form of kmy or BMD.


Who and when is the bone density measurement done?

-After menopause

-65 women over age

-Drugs that cause bone loss such as Steroid medications

-Patients with a history of hip fracture in his or her mother

-Type 1 diabetes, liver and kidney disease

-Patients with severe hyperthyroidism

-Patients with hyperparathyroidism

-Patients with a slight trauma fracture

-Patients suspected of bone melting (osteoporosis) or spinal fracture in X-ray film


How often does a bone scan test occur?

The bone density measurement can be done more frequently in the presence of risk factors after menopause in an average of 2 years, or in people who are not a risk factor with a good bone density can be done more infrequently in 3-5 per year.



How is bone mineral density measurement (bone screening test) done?

The most commonly used DEXA (abbreviated as DXA) method to determine bone mineral density is a simple, short-lasting, painless method. The patient is on the device as shown in the picture and the operation is performed in this position. The patient is exposed to a very small amount of radiation, the amount of radiation received is almost one tenth of the dose in a pulmonary x-ray film. The lumbar portion of the spine (L1-L4) and the hips (femur) are usually shot. The shot takes up to 10 minutes, and the result report is usually given to the patient within half an hour after the shooting.

It doesn't matter if the patient is hungry or not, on the day of measurement. He doesn't have to take a pill before. In order not to enter the shooting area, the metal buttons, belts, non-zipper clothes should be preferred. You can also shoot with the dress, but sometimes you may be asked to remove some clothes unless the metal enters the shooting area.



During the shooting, the patient's legs are placed on the back of the abdomen to straighten the lumbar area of the spine (for the straightening of the Lordose). In the hip shot, the leg is translated inward, i.e. the femur bone (inner rotation).



Why is bone density measurement done?

The main reason is to investigate the presence of bone melting (osteoporosis) in the person. In addition, it is used to determine the risk of fracture. Hip fractures and spinal fractures are more frequent in patients with bone melting. There was a direct correlation between the T-score value detected in the bone mineral density (DEXA) measurement and the fracture risk. The lower the T score, the higher the bone melt, and the risk of fracture is increasing exponentially at the same rate. In addition, bone density measurement is performed at certain intervals to observe the treatment and the benefit of the treatment in patients with treatment for bone melting.


Bone melting Classification According to the WHO (World Health Organization) criteria:

Bone melt is classified according to the T-score (T-Score) value determined by the Dexa method. The value of T-score means that there is more bone loss than the negative value.


-Apparent osteoporosis (severe bone melting): The T-score value-2.5 is under the SD and also the patient has a broken history.

-Osteoporosis (bone melting): The T-score value-2.5 is under the SD. (-3,-4 as...)

-Osteopenia (Decrease in bone mass): The T-score value is between-1 and-2.5 SD

-Normal: The value of T-score is better than-1

Bone density measurement values are:

The Dexa method has two main parameters that are evaluated as a result of bone mineral density measurement (kmy). In particular, the level of bone melting is determined according to the T-score and the treatment is planned if necessary.

 

T-Score: The patient's bone mass value is compared to the average bone mass of young adult people of the same gender, and the difference is determined.

Z-Score (Z-score): The patient's bone mass value is compared to the bone mass of the same age and gender.



Two units are used in evaluating the results of the DEXA:

BMC (Bone Mineral content): The unit refers to the bone weight that falls in the bone length (gr/cm).

BMD (Bone Mineral density): The unit refers to the bone pain that falls into the bone area (gr/cm2).


Risk factors in terms of fracture:

Low bone mineral density is a significant risk factor in terms of fracture. The lower the T-score in the bone density measurement, the higher the risk of fracture, and the occasional correlation has been found. A patient with T-score-3 has increased the risk of fracture by 2 to 3, i.e. 8 times.

However, there is a point to be considered, the only factor that determines the risk of fracture is not kmy (bone mineral density) or even fractures in patients with kmy normal. Therefore, the presence of other risk factors related to fracture outside the kmy patient should be evaluated. In the presence of the following risk factors, bone mineral density is normal, even though the risk of fracture has increased:

-Advanced age (over 65 years old)

-Patients with a broken story in the past

-Patients who have received glucocorticoid (steroid) treatment

-Patients with very little weight

-Patients with a history of hip fractures in their family

-Large quantities of cigarettes and alcohol-intensive patients

Factors that may cause error with DEXA in bone density measurements:

-calcification of the outside bone, such as calcification of the aortic wall, enters the shooting area

-Degeneration of the spine

-Fractures and kamalasma in the spine

-Spine sclerotic metastases

-presence of metal implant V. B Substances in the spine

-Paget's disease

-Calcification of lymph nodes


Radiological methods that can be measured in bone mineral density:

-Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA or DEXA): double beam (dual energy) Absorbcyometry: The above described and most commonly used method. The energy source is X-rays.

-Quantitative computed tomography (QCT): Quantitative computed tomography: X rays and computerized tomography is done using. With QCT, volumetric measurement (three-dimensional) is done and the result of the kmy is given as GR/cm3. The advantage of degenerative changes and aortic calcification is not affected by V. B. It is a disadvantage that the process lasts longer and the more expensive the tool is also exposed to more radiation than the Dexa method.

-Qualitative ultrasound (QUS): Quantitative ultrasonography

-Single photon absorptiometry (SPA): Single photon Abzorbcyometry

-Dual photon absorptiometry (DPA): Double photon abzorbcyometry (DPA)

-Digital X-ray Radiogrammetry (DXR)

-Single energy X-ray absorptiometry (SEXA): Single power (single-grain) x-ray Abzorbcyometry

-Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)


Bone Density measurement (bone scan) which centers and which section are performed?

Patients who enter menopause usually take this test in the obstetrics and gynecology clinics during gynecological examination. However, physical therapy and orthopedics are also required for bone screening. It is a widespread examination in most of the public hospitals and private centres nowadays.

Note: This page has been translated. Could be a word error. Please consult your specialist




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