how is a earthquake measured

how is a earthquake measured ? The earthquake is a complex elastic wave movements caused by a displacement movement, which occurs as a result of sudden discharge of the form change energy accumulated on the fractures, which are called faults in the ground. This displacement is proportional to the magnitude of the earthquake, especially in shallow earthquakes after a certain magnitude, fractures related to faulting are seen on Earth.

It is called "seismology", which is how the earthquake occurred, how the quake waves were spread within the earth, measuring instruments and methods, the evaluation of records and other issues related to the earthquake. Earthquakes are measured and recorded with "Seismograph". The instantaneous magnitude of an earthquake is expressed by the "Richter" scale. According to this scale, earthquakes of the 3 and six violence are generally not felt, while earthquakes in the 7 and above violence can be devastating. The intensity of the tremor is measured by the scale of "Mercalli" violence.

Seismologists and geologists provide a lot of information and data on earthquake behaviour and ground movements. One of them is the records of the vibrations caused by the quake, called the Seismogram. By examining these seismograms, seismologists detect the magnitude of the earthquake on the Richter scale and announce it to the public.

The crust movement caused by earthquakes is a "dynamic" behavior that can be unfolded in a short period of time, in a sudden and in different directions. This dynamic behavior can be recorded using various sensors with today's technology. One of the commonly used sensors is "accelerometer" (accelerometer).

 

How is the severity of the quake measured?

Geological measurements are made to determine where a non-fracture is going to be. In these geophysical measurements, small vibrations will be broken in the cut. The size of these vibrations varies between 1 – 4. I mean, before something breaks, it sounds like a snap, and it makes a noise before it breaks down. Because these voices are in vibrations, people don't hear them. Specific layouts are placed to measure them. These mechanisms are called vibration measuring mechanisms. These vibration and earthquake gauges measure the vibrations that people do not hear while scanning that area. By evaluating these perceptions, they look at their positions. Those locations are located directly above the ground to be broken. Indicates a linear overlap. When looking at the extension of the place with this overlap is called; "This place will be broken." So this place has begun to stretch, and after a while, the breakage will surely happen. The sections of this danger are taken under observation and are closely examined.

The length and magnitude of this dangerous area, will give insight into the power of the quake. Furthermore, another way to examine the possibility of an earthquake is historical knowledge. So the idea of a region is to be obtained by looking at the earthquake history.

What is the difference between the severity and magnitude of the quake?

 

The magnitude of the quake is actually the magnitude of the energy exposed during the earthquake. It is also mentioned as Magnitüd. This value is calculated by utilizing the maximum amplability of the P and S Dalgar recorded by the seismograph, which is 100 km from the epicenter. This method is originally found by Charles Richter, and the scale is called the Richter scale. The Richter scale is a logarithmic value. This means that a 1-unit increase in the magnitude of the quake increases the Seismogram amplability by 10 times and 30 times the amount of energy exposed during the earthquake.

 

The severity of the quake is a measure of the effects of the quake in the Earth's crust. A number of violent rulers have been prepared by looking at the impact of the earthquake on the creatures and structures in that area. The most known is the Mercalli violence ruler.

What happens to the severity of the quake?

Violence 1

It's not usually heard by people. However, it is recorded by sensitive seismographs.

 

Violence 2

However, resting and especially in the upper floors of the buildings are heard on the side of the people. Some of the items in the hanged state are swinging.

 

Violence 3

It is heard by people in the buildings and especially on the upper floors. Hanging objects shake. A lot of people don't know it's an earthquake. Standing motor vehicles are gently swinging. It sounds like a heavy motor vehicle passing by. Time can be detected.

 

Violence 4

In the daytime, many people can be heard by some persons outside. It could be perceived as a big truck passing by. You can wake up some people at night, the plates, the pots shake, the walls squeak.

Violence 5

It's heard by everyone. Many people wake up. direction is monitored. A portion of kitchen utensils and window windows can be broken. Liquids may crack or fall, non-deterministic items can be transferred. Sometimes the trees, poles, and other high objects are swaying. Pendulum clocks can stop, poorly made chimneys can collapse.

 

Violence 6

Heard by everyone. Many people get out of the oven, the walk becomes difficult, the glass items, the Windows break, the books fall from the shelves, cracks occur in the plaster. The chimneys appear to have fallen.

 

Violence 7

It's hard to stand, everyone runs out, the people who drive are aware of the quake, the items are damaged. Damage occurs in type D structures. Plaster, poorly fastened bricks, tiles, cornices. The decorating materials fall. C type structures consist of cracks, fluctuations in the pool, mud in puddles, small slip and pits.

 

Violence 8-9

Driving becomes difficult, damage and destruction in type C structures, damage to type B structures, no damage to type A structures. Weak walls are demolished, sculptures, water tanks standing high, stacked materials, towers and chimneys are washed. The wooden structures are overthrown, the tree branches break, the heavy goods turn upside down, the vehicles are uncomfortable, the flow and temperature of the water sources varies, the terrain will have sand sprays, cracks and faults, rocks fall and landslides.

 

Violence 10

Most structures of type B, C and D are destroyed. Wood, carcass, reinforced concrete structures are heavily damaged, significant damage is observed in dams and bent, significant cracks occur on the earth, rails are bent, landslides on the river shores and steep slopes, sand and mud flows are seen.

 

Violence 11

Very few structures survive. Bridges are destroyed, the Earth consists of large cracks, the underground tubes are useless, the soft terrain shifts occur, the rails spread too much.

 

Violence 12

All structures are demolished, the shape of the earth changes in the earthquake area, the objects are blown into the air, the Earth's tidal waves are seen, the horizon and the concept of the landscape disappears.

A type structure

Good workmanship mortar and design, solid construction built as iron, concrete and material and equipped to withstand horizontal forces.

 

Type B structure

Good workmanship and mortar equipment. resistant to horizontal forces.

 

Type C structure

Ordinary workmanship and mortar are not a very weak structure, but are not built as durable to the horizontal forces.

 

Type D structure

Adobe is weak against weak material such as stone, bad mortar, non-standard workmanship and horizontal forces.

 

Note: This page has been translated. Could be a word error. Please consult your specialist




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