how solar panels work

how solar panels work? Nowadays, electricity production has begun to be obtained from solar energy in various places. We're getting electric energy from solar energy. And how is it getting electricity from the sun rays? How do solar cells or photovoltaic batteries produce electricity from sunlight? is the resulting electrical alternative or the correct voltage? What you're wondering about solar cells is the continuation of our summer.

how solar panels work

A solar cell that works as a semiconductor diode converts the energy the sunlight carries into direct electrical energy by taking advantage of the internal photoelectric reaction.


In the early 19th century, the first developments were achieved, bringing the invention of the solar cells closer. A. Edmond Becquerel found a photovoltaic effect with his work on platinum layers in 1839. In 1884, Charles Fritts developed the first solar cell, a major step towards solar cells technology. In 1954, the scientists in the Bell laboratories identified the current solar cell technology by creating solar cells with ion-laden silicon (other known as silicon).


Sunlight consists of small energy packs called photons. Every minute, the photons from the sun will deliver enough energy to our world for one year of energy consumption. Using this energy from the sun, the purpose of generating electricity is solar panels, in other words, photovoltaic panels are used.


how solar panels work

The surfaces are square, rectangular or circular in the form of areas around 60-160, thickness is between 0.2 or 0.4 mm. Solar panels, namely photovoltaic panels, consist of a lot of cells. These cells are made of a lot of elements called silicon and found in our world. Each cell is composed of a positive and a negative layer to create an electric current, just like the batteries.

In order to increase power output, a large number of solar cells are mounted on a surface by parallel or serial connection, this structure is called a solar cell module or photovoltaic module. Depending on the power demand, the system is created to generate power from several watts to megawatts by connecting the modules to each other in series or parallel.


how solar panels work

Structure of solar Batteries


Today, semiconductor elements are gaining importance. Solar cells such as diodes, transistors, thyristors, rectifiers, diode, are also made of semiconductor substances.

The structures of the solar cells are simply similar to diodes consisting of a p and n joints. Based on the principle of photoelectric event, electrons from the battery are triggered by photons and the joint activates the joints and creates an electrical current. This current is the current stream. Now, let's just say this in a more detailed way.


Among the many substances that demonstrate semi-conductive properties, the most conducive to making solar cells are substances such as silicon, gallium arsenitis, cadmium wire. To be used as a solar cell, the semiconductor materials must be folded n or P type.

The additive is made with a controlled addition of the desired additives to the pure semiconductor melt. For example, to obtain Silicon N type silica, the periodic ruler is 5. An element is added from the group. 5. Periodic ruler We'll give you phosphorous as an example of an element from the group.


In the outer orbit of the silicon, phosphorus has 5 electrons in the outer orbit of the phosphorous, giving the crystalline structure an excess electron. Therefore, 5. Group elements are called donor or N type additives.


For the silicon to obtain P-type silicon, the periodic ruler is 3. The group element is added. There are 3 electrons in the last orbit of this added element. Therefore, the crystalline structure consists of one electron deficiency. This electron absence is called a hallway or a void. Therefore, P-type items are also called recipients.


how solar panels work

After the semiconductor joints are formed, the photons from the sun's rays, thanks to the N-type electrons, move towards the type P. This event continues until the loadbalance occurs on both sides.


The excess of their electron scarcity (hol or hole) and the other (-providing loads) leads to the formation of an electric field on both sides of this region. The photons of luminous flux absorbed by the semiconductor form the electron-hol pairs collected separately on both sides of the semiconductor part. As a result, an electrical current that is proportional to the intensity of the light that falls here with the enlightened face of the joint.


how solar panels work

PN type is negative on the intermediate surface of the substance, i.e. in the joint region, P region, and a positive load on the side of the N region.


Note: This page has been translated. Could be a word error. Please consult your specialist

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